INTRODUCTION

In exercise, the squat and plank are useful due to how much of the body gets worked out doing them. In comics, you have a perfect marriage of words and art. And through comics, creators can take the lessons specific to comic creating to other forms of creation. 2D art, claymation, video games, animation, and more are fields comic creators can lend to.

Ray happens to be a creator who has his creative hand in all these creative fields and more. Not only is Ray actively involved in them, he teaches them. Ray Mullikin of RayToons is a unique creator forging his own path while teaching others to find their own.

COMICS

JOESEPH SIMON
You teach younger students and create all-ages material.  I’m curious what comics pulled you into comics and what do you read now?

RAY
When I was a kid, my dad would pass on to me the comics section of the newspaper every Sunday to read. I was especially a big fan of Charles Schulz’s Peanuts comics. This was probably my first real introductions to comics in general. Not to long after that, my first comic books were Disney comics, mostly comics by Carl Barks (and Don Rosa). It was comics that got me interested in reading in general. If I had never gotten introduced to comics, I probably would not have moved on to reading novels like Huckleberry Finn and Treasure Island as a kid. Nowadays, I read a lot of books… I especially enjoy reading historical journals and archaeology related articles. But I also read plenty comic books as well. I recently read all 6 volumes of Segar’s Popeye. I also read some Batman graphic novels every once in a while… Batman Blind Justice and Batman Going Sane were some of my past favorites.

JOESEPH
At what age did you start reading?

RAY
I was big fan of comics for almost as long as I can remember. The first comics that I owned were Carl Barks Donald Duck and Uncle Scrooge comics were given to me when I was 4 years old. A few years later, I got my hands on Star Trek, Dick Tracy, and Popeye comics, which are all still some of my favorites to this day.

JOESEPH
What comics and creators started you down the path to creating and teaching?

RAY
Carl Barks, Don Rosa, Charles Schulz, Bill Watterson, Bruce Timm. These were the artists that I got my attention as a kid. I would carefully study their art during the whole process on developing my own. My grandma gave me “how to” drawing books from Preston Blair, which were a very big help in helping me with my drawings. Blair’s work is amazing! I often recommend his animation books to the students in my animation classes. E. C. Segar (the creator of Popeye) did a lot of “how to draw” themed comic strips (called Sappo), which I also enjoyed reading as a kid. This was also the first time I saw cartoonist turn words and scribbles into cartoons, which is sometimes I currently do with children at community events.

JOESEPH
What creators, series, non-series, and publishers do you think are the leaders in all-ages comic

RAY
I feel Carl Barks, the creator of many of the Disney duck characters, was one of the early creators that had a big impact on both children and adults. Georges Remi (Hergé) is another, with his series of Tin Tin graphic novels. My mom remembers students reading Tin Tin books when she was a kid, other children and I would read the books when I was a kid, and I still see children to this day reading his graphic novels. Jeff Smith, the creator of the Bone series of graphic novels, is someone who
has had a strong influence on readers in recent years. I’ve seen many kids reading his books.

JOESEPH
A lot of superhero comic fans will already have an already established idea of Disney comics based more on Saturday Morning Cartoons than the actual comics that Barks and Rosa created.  What made the comics Barks and Rosa created compelling to you?

RAY
The thing about Carl Barks makes him so great is connected to something he has said in the past… about how the story comes first, foremost, and above anything else you can possibly think of. I enjoyed the rich, adventurous and straightforward storytelling (and great characterization), mixed in with great comedy. Barks did excellent craftsmanship with his stories and art.

JOESEPH
Much like people having a preconceived idea of a Disney comic, I suspect there is a perception of an all-ages comic that many people misjudge.

You mentioned Bone. That’s a great example of an all-ages comic… The key idea to all ages in a way is that people of all ages can enjoy the comic. It doesn’t mean it spoon-feeds to a younger reader and is going to bore an older reader.

RAY
Jeff Smith himself has said that the stories were not originally written for kids. I think that’s an important part of making a great all-ages comic. You don’t try to simplify it for kids. Kids are very smart and have a lot of great tastes.

JOESEPH
Bone was a fun, engaging adventure that swept all readers up on all the emotions and kept it exciting.

RAY
I agree! The stories were full of mystery, romance, and adventure!

JOESEPH
I just ordered an IDW collection of Dick Tracy’s chronicling his moon adventures. I’m a big fan of Dick Tracy and have read a lot of Tracy’s adventures. This will be my first of his moon stories. Did you read any of those and if you did, what did you think?

RAY
I mostly skipped the Dick Tracy moon stories as a kid. Lol. I was a big fan of his detective stories, but the moon stories seemed a little bit out there. But I remember some of the later stories that I read, after the sci-fi stories stopped, still had characters like “Moon Maid” in them. And that made me wonder if I should have read these stories instead of skipping them. The main story that I remember with the Moon Maid character was the Big Boy mobster revenge story, where he has an assassin try to kill Tracy, but it ends up being Moon Maid that gets killed.

JOESEPH
Have you kept up on the current creative team on Dick Tracy?  Joe Staton and Mike Curtis?

RAY
I haven’t read anything from them lately, but I have read some of their earlier stories, such as the murder in the plane mystery, a crime story that I remember being on the Indian reservation, another with an evil hypnosis villain, and others. I remember finding the stories entertaining, but not of the same quality as Chester Gould and
Max Allan Collins.

JOESEPH
Staton co-created E-Man. I’m a fan of E-man and I might point E-Man out as my first all-ages comic that I really liked. I really like what Staton (and Curtis) are doing with Dick Tracy. They have teamed him up with Will Eisner’s Spirit, Little Orphan Annie, and many others over the years. I’m curious if you think all newspaper comics are all ages?

RAY
That is a good question. Some of the old Dick Tracy comics do have some violence in them and were banned in Canada in the past. And I am sure there are newspaper comics out there that are more adult-themed.

I’ve also have read E-Man and enjoyed them. I still have a stack of E-Man comics, mostly from the 80s.

WRITING

JOESEPH
In today’s world, there are so many opinions from an incredibly divided nation.  At the same time, we live in a short attention span generation. What is the best way to describe an all-ages story?

RAY
A good all-ages comic tells a compelling story that is relatable (and appropriate) to young children but is written in such a way that adults can enjoy it as well.

JOESEPH
In your mind what is makes a good comic all ages? Name a few.

RAY
I remember at one of the writer’s conferences that I attended, there was a writer there who writes stories for graphic novels and comic books, usually for all ages. He said that when he writes his stories, he writes them for adults, but keeps it is kid-friendly. I try and do the same for my stories.

CLAYMATION

JOESEPH
The first claymation I remember as a kid is Gumby, then Wallace and Gromit.  What was your first memory of claymation?

RAY
The first Claymation that I remember as a kid was also Gumby (and Davey and Goliath), which was created by Art Clokey. When I started teaching Claymation back in 2009, one of Clokey’s relatives (I think it was his great-nephew or something like that) took my class. The child’s mom told me that Clokey lived about 30 minutes in Los Osos, and said I should meet him sometime. But, sadly, I never got that chance.

The Raisons was another claymation series that I watched as a kid. One particular Raisons special that I remember was the A Claymation Christmas Celebration, which was very funny. Later on, in high school, I got to watch Wallace and Gromit shorts, which I thought were very clever animations.

2D VIDEO GAMES

JOESEPH
Ever read the book Flat World? If you have, what did you think?

RAY
I have not read the book Flat World, but I have watched a stop-motion animated film with the same name (by Daniel Greaves). I don’t know if it is related in any way for not, but it is a film that impressed me with the extensive use of paper cutouts (mixed in with other types of animation) for its unique visual style.

JOESEPH
That is interesting.  What Greves did was called Flatworld and it was influenced by Flatland.  Flatworld apparently used over 40,000 cardboard cutouts in its production. I’ll have to check it out.

Flatland was written in 1884 by George Abbott Abbott. Written pseudonymously by A Square. Abbott creates a satirical novella to comment on the hierarch of Victorian culture through its thoughtful examination of dimensions.

While Flatworld is not one of them, several films have been made including Flatland (2007) and others including one narrated by Dudley Moore.

We are introduced to a two-dimensional world occupied by geometric shapes. Women are simple line-segments. Men are polygons with various numbers of sides. The narrator is a square.  The story goes through the length to describe the society in this world and then things get very interesting in the social structure including attempted murder and a visit by a three-dimensional sphere. There’s a considerable amount more to the story.

I always equate it to 2D video gaming and the potential that exists within that platform that is still untapped.

My first computer was the Vic 20 and I was a fan of the Scott Adams Adventures games so much I learned Basic to write my own text adventure games.

RAY
Sounds like we had a lot in common.

JOESEPH
I later became a fan of Infocom and even have the box collection of Infocom. I think text adventure games and what stemmed out from there as well as Choose Your Own Adventure books rewire the brain in good ways. It causes you to think and question things. A good trait for young people to have.

I recently been wanting to create text adventure games using Twine. Have you used Twine?

RAY
I have seen Twine before. I’ve downloaded it in the past with some other programs when I was trying to decide what program to use for an interactive fiction activity that I was doing with some students. The students ended up just sticking with Clickteam Fusion for making their interactive story games.

JOESEPH
Clickteam Fusion is interesting? For each different gaming platform or console, do you have to change code, reprogram the game or buy a different module to have it on one or the other?

RAY
All the game coding is done on Clickteam Fusion. People are constantly creating their own addons for the software as a form of plugins. There are hundreds of these available. Some of these plugins might only work for specific consoles or devices. Clickteam Fusion also comes with Exporters for Windows, Html5, and recently Xbox 360. But you have to purchase exporters separately for Flash, Xbox One, Windows Mobile, Android, etc. It used to include export options for Java and Visual C++, but they are no longer included with the app… But I think they might available online somewhere to download.

VIDEO GAMES

JOESEPH
Video gaming in the mainstream seems to incur a lot of mimicking. Not to be dismissive of the unreal gaming engine or others, because a lot of good games stem from there, true innovation is coming more from the indie video game market. What video games got you into video gaming, what games now are you into and where do you see the market going?

RAY
The first video games that I played was from an Atari Video Game Console that I got when I was 3 years old. My favorite games were Mario Bros, Pitfall, and Cookie Monster Munch (where you play as Ernie and have to gather up all the cookies while being chased by Cookie Monster). I later on got a Nintendo Game Console, and my favorite games became Super Mario Bros 3, Zelda II, and Battle of Olympus.

My first computer was a Tandy 3000 computer that I got when I was 10 years old, which I played a lot of Infocom text-based games, such as Zork and Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Then one day I found in an issue of 321 Contact Kids Magazine, instructions on how to build a Basic Game on the computer. I typed up the game and played it. I then tampered with the lines of code and figured out how to program my own games. In Highschool, I build my own RPG game (which I modeled after the game “Orb of Zot”) on my TI-83 graphing calculator and sent it over to my friend’s graphing calculators (which the students played during Calculus class).

JOESEPH
In Cleveland, we actually have a number of video game-themed bars and board game cafes.  We all know there are professional video game players like what you see on TWITCH. Every year there’s new game systems, upgrades to existing systems, how does this impact on your teaching video games?

RAY
With new game systems and changes with how games are coding, I know how difficult it is for instructors to adapt to all the changes. My knowledge in Basic programming became obsolete, while my skills in Visual C++, Flash, and Javascript became outdated. I’ve known other instructors to eventually give up teaching in computer programming altogether. But I was lucky enough to find and use a particular coding software back in high school called Multimedia Fusion (which was later renamed to Clickteam Fusion), which has changed very little in design through the last 20+ years of existence, has received upgrades that allowed it to export games to newer game consoles (such as Xbox One). And in recent years, it has become more known, due to some popular game apps being made from it (such as Five Nights at Freddy’s).

BOARD GAMES

JOESEPH
In other countries, board games are more popular than in America. Of course, if your exposure to board games are only what the Department stores carry, you are missing out. The variety of board games are amazing. What board games did you start playing?

RAY
As a child, I mostly played the games common in stores, such as Chess, Checker, Stratego, Monopoly, etc. I didn’t start becoming more familiar to the other board game genres until high school, where I discovered games like RoboRally, Sirocco, BattleTech, etc.

JOESEPH
Board games are social fun and entertainment. With younger players, it can also be family time. Do you think family’s are likely to have game time these days?

RAY
I know of some families that would dedicate family time to playing board games (and video games). And I suspect that more time is available to some of them with the Coronavirus situation going on.

JOESEPH
When students make games do they create them w their parents in mind?

RAY
I think a lot of the games that students create were influenced by what they played with their parents at home. But when they make games, they usually have their friends in mind. They often want to design a game that would impress them… And sometimes they get a little bit to carried away on their first game. After the initial playtests, their rules are then modified and simplified to a game that is more playable and fun.

JOESEPH
I’m a fan of different game mechanics. Settlers of Catan really opened my eyes to how different games can be if given a different perspective. Abstract Strategy games from Japan’s Logy Games are very interesting as well.  I helped promote his game Megateh. This was a game that was made so the visually impaired could play on equal footing with the sighted. Do your students, in a like-minded way, introduce new mechanics to you?

RAY
During my tabletop classes and workshops, I often have students bring in games to share with the class. I was introduced to Resource Management themed games, like Settler’s of Catan, this way. Over the years I gotten to see game for almost every type of thing… I remember seeing a strategy game where the goal is to build a fast-food chain. Or a game where players take turns building a wall and the other player tries to knock it down by flinging a tiny little boulder at it. Or a board game where you design your own superhero and then compete against other superhero players trying to fight crime.

ART

JOESEPH
You are also an artist. Where did you start as an artist?

RAY
I got interested in art and cartooning when I was very young. I practice drawing characters from comics that I read, getting familiar with their style and learning to develop my own. My art teachers in Middle School and High School helped me with designing cartoons for local businesses to use.

JOESEPH
When did you decide your art would be applied to comics vs other forms of art?

RAY
I wanted to comics ever since I was a kid. I had that in mind when I first started drawing with a pencil or pen.

JOESEPH
I’m impressed with your methodology and determination. The distribution route you have created, the push in education and your all ages approach.

RAY
It took me a long time to get where I am, but I am proud of what I have done.

JOESEPH
Do you see yourself as forging your own path in comics?

RAY
After all my years doing comics and illustration, I’ve finally starting to see my own path to take. My focus is now more towards both education and publishing in relation to comics. And my Cartoon Avenue comic magazine, I’ve found it works best as both an educational tool, as well as a means to promote Indie comics. The next issue will especially see much more of that with cartooning related lessons, more cartoonist interviews, and more Indie comics and comic strips.

There is also a gap in magazines that publish children’s works… There were quite a few of them around decades ago, but now they are practically all gone now. I feel that children need a publishing place that is for them, to give them the confidence that they can achieve something great.

TEACHING

JOESEPH
I actually used to teach at an art college. I found it to be a great experience helping and educating others while disheartening in regard to the politics of education. I think it’s great that you bring these types of classes to younger students. Who knows, given the opportunity to take such classes at that age, where my life would be now. I’m curious, at that age, the student obviously has to be interested, and the parent of the student on board. I didn’t have to deal with that aspect to the degree you have to.  How do you get a parent on board?

RAY
I often email the parents prior to the class to let them know what the class is about and what is needed for the class. Some parents stay connected with me throughout the class with emails and/or coming into class and conversing with me. On occasion, they might stay in the class to help the student (usually for Special Needs students that feel more comfortable with their parents around).

JOESEPH
Having a room full of engaged students who want to be there has to be quite an experience.  My students in part were there due to it being part of the course work as opposed to genuine desire. Enthusiasm is super cool, obviously, at the same time, are there times when a student might have a creative block? How do you deal w that?

RAY
I’ve taught students from as young as 7 to as old as 65, and have found there to more creative blocks with adults than children. It felt to me like the older they got, the more they develop a fear of peer rejection on the ideas that they create. I talk about this a lot in my classes… Especially in my creative writing ones. I introduce students to different activities that help them think of new ideas. For example, one of the activities is having comic book and creative writing students create an idea finder, which is a bunch of circular cardstock discs full of random words. One disc has places, one with different verbs, one with different objects, and another different people and animals. They spin the wheels and come up with different random words (such as 2 Nuns, a banana, dancing, and deserted island) and they must come up with a short story or comic with these words.

JOESEPH
Idea Finder is an interesting idea.  It is kind of like improv comedy taking crowd prompts to work from, but in this case its comic book creation.

RAY
And it has helped a lot people with their gag comics. Some of the comics on online have now been using Idea Finder with their gags.

JOESEPH
If you had the opportunity to talk to teaching professionals, keeping in mind you teach all these creative outlets, what would you tell schools about (and how they could incorporate) comics, board games, video games, art, and everything you teach?

RAY
As a contract teacher, I am often connected with teachers from different schools. The classes are usually set up as enrichment or afterschool activities, but there have been times where teachers have wanted to incorporate the activities with their curriculum. For example, in Middle School or High School English, students are sometimes are allowed different ways to present a certain book that they read. They are allowed to present what they learned as a video, essay, board game, comic, etc. The student is told that he or she use the time in my one of my classes (usually cartooning) to make something for the class project.

COMICS AND YOUNGER READERS

JOESPEH
For decades now, both Marvel and DC has been Trying to get younger readers more involved in reading comics. What comics have you found your students are reading? Who are their creative influences? Where are they getting their comics?

RAY
For me, I feel like comics (especially from Marvel and DC) and been more geared more to adults than children. A lot of comic books shops tell me this. Someone at Diamond told this to me in the past, when I originally looked to them for distribution. I feel that children are being left out. They still like comic books and mostly buy their comics as graphic novels from places like scholastic through book fairs. They also read their comics at online places, such as Tapas and Online Webtoon (where I had posted comics in the past). Some go to comic book shops with their parents, but most don’t. Because of this, I found that the best way to get readers for my comics is to go to the schools themselves. I get a LOT more sales that way than through the comic book shops, as my readers are mostly kids and teens.

JOESEPH
Given all of that, what have Marvel and DC been doing right and what have they been doing wrong in trying to get younger readers?

RAY
I think what Marvel and DC have been doing right has been making movies, television shows, and cartoons that are geared to kids as well as adults. But I think they have been weaker with this on the comic book end. When I go into comic book shops, a lot of their comics are geared towards adults… Including the superheroes that kids love. I occasionally find new superhero comics for kids, but they are very few there. When I go into grocery stores, there is usually no DC or Marvel comics found there… Usually its just Archie. I feel there is an opportunity for DC and Marvel to connect with parents and kids here that is being missed. At school book fairs, I occasionally see picture books and novels about upcoming Marvel and DC movies, but no comic books. There are quite a few graphic novels here, but they are ones that are not from DC or Marvel, such as Bone.

WEBTOONS

RAY
Webtoons has indeed been very innovative at having their comics adjusted for use on the phone. Since pretty much everybody uses a phone, its surprising that DC and Marvel haven’t really tried experimenting with this much.

JOESEPH
There are a lot of interesting graphic and narrative tricks one can use on Webtoons.

RAY
Some of the comics on Tapas and Webtoons even used animated gifs for their comics, which does add a unique charm to it.

JOESEPH
A lot of famous people like performer and actor Common, actor John Barrowman, Warren Ellis, Stan Lee before he passed, comic creator Dean Haspiel and many others have appeared on Webtoons.

RAY
I wasn’t aware of this.

JOESEPH
What webtoons do you find interesting?

RAY
Most of the webtoons aren’t really that interesting to me. A lot of them seem to be focused on Teen High School drama, which is very popular with a lot of kids. But there are some that students have pointed out to me, that I found interesting and clever. I have even read a few of them and had them bookmarked on my phone at one time. One of the comics that I read is called “A Budgie’s Life”. And another was “Sarah’s Scribbles”.

JOESEPH
No American company has come up with their own webtoons which is strange as the readership on webtoons is far greater than any print comic.

RAY
I have been aware of some American companies trying to do something like Webtoons, but have failed. One example was Comicspace, which was developed back in 2006 by Josh Roberts and Joey Manley. They styled the place after Myspace and Facebook, and wanted to create comics that could be read on both computers and tablets. I remember being notifying of their launch and contributing comics to it. They closed down their Comicspace business in 2012. Then there are places like Smackjeeves and ComicFury, which have been around for a while, but haven’t gotten much traction. DC and Marvel (and maybe Image) are the only companies that I think could create something that might rival Webtoons, if they even cared to do so.

I think South Korea has been more successful with places like Webtoons and Tapas, because of the strong comic readership there. But they do get a lot of funding and support from people in the USA (like with former Facebook Chief Technology Officer Adam D’Angelo).

And there are American comics on Webtoons as well… Which might be another reason why the USA comic hosting sites haven’t done as well. But the USA comics on Webtoons are not as popular as the South Korean comics that dominate the site. And it makes sense, as it originated in South Korea and the largest audience is from there. There is a popular comic there called “Hello World” which is by Alex Norris, who is located in London, England.

I used to have my Quackup comics on Webtoons… and they might still be on there somewhere. They did help a lot in building up an audience, but I stopped posting my comics on Webtoons when I started selling my print comics in larger quantities. The reason I did that is because I don’t make any money on Webtoons, and my audience grew strong enough that I could instead focus on selling print comics.

YOUR CREATIONS

JOESEPH
We have talked a lot about creative fields, all of which, not only do you teach, but you create in yourself.  Let’s talk about your creations.  What comics have you created?

RAY
My first comic that I ever published was a graphic novel called, “The World of Weralt”. I wrote and illustrated the book when I was a Sophomore in Highschool. The high school librarian helped me “self-publish” a couple years later, by printing out a handful of spiralbound copies of the book and distributing it amongst the students there. After high school, I got the book published through Print on Demand, and is currently available on Amazon for people to buy.

Back when I was a senior in high school, I created a comic strip series called “Along the Tumbleweed Trail”. I posted a new comic online every few days. I had it published in Bluemoon Comics magazine, as well as one of the cartoonist newsletters. I also created a series of single-panel comic jokes that same year, which I called “Raytoons Comics”, that were posted online through “Klean Jokes Daily”, “2100 Net Avenue Email Greetings”, and “CartooZine”.

In college, I published comic strips at the Cuesta college newspaper, as well as a newspaper in Canada. I created a comic book series called Quackup, which lasted a couple months. I ended up quitting on the series due to very lower readership (and due to the fact that I was very busy with work and college) … But months later, too my surprise, I found up to 4 thousand readers checking out my comic each day.

I currently and doing a series called “Raytoons Cartoon Avenue”, which features different comic stories created by myself and others. This is my second attempt at the series. My first attempt occurred over a decade ago, when I printed the books in POD. (Info about the original series is in Comic Buyers Guide #1628, May 2007, next to Special Spiderman 3 article.)

Because of the high production costs, making a profit was next to impossible. I then realized that the only way to sell a comic and actually turn up a profit would be to print through an offset printer. But to do that requires purchasing thousands of books, but I had no money or storage space to do that. So, I ended up canceling the series and going into student teaching and worked for a while as a substitute teacher.

So, after doing that for a while and (after paying all my college loans) saving up my money in the bank, I started thinking about printing through offset printing. Do I risk spending all that I have on printing one of my comic books? I was scared, I decided it was better to try and fail than not try at all, so I freed up some space in my home for storage and had 4 thousand copies of Quackup #1 printed. I initially sold them to the different schools. And then schools got interested in bringing me in as a contract teacher. I also used the comics as a means to doing workshops at writers conferences. I made a little bit of money and was happy to know that there were thousands of readers reading my books. But later on, when I posted my printing receipts online to show students from my classes that I teach the costs of offset printing and POD, all of a sudden, I got people contacting me interested in advertising. And that helped me with printing out more issues. And then I brought back “Raytoons Cartoon Avenue”, which was also a success.

Recently, I have brought the characters from my high school “Along the Tumbleweed Trail” comics back as a new comic book series. I plan to publish the comics sometime next year. I also plan to reprint my comic series “Miced”, which was a comic series that I printed through POD years back (which was costly and had only a few prints made).

JOESEPH
The industry as a whole is very intricate with many different parts. Marvel and DC have seen the need for younger readers and every so often they do try. It only lasts for a short time. Yet, you are doing it with a fairly large distribution that many dream about.

RAY
While working at schools, I found their interest in looking for authors to visit their schools. These authors would talk about what they do and sell their books to the families that were watching. But these authors were mostly children’s book authors… I even did author visits for a time with my “2 Many Parakeets” book. But I saw no comic book creators taking advantage of this opportunity to connect with children. So, I took the initiative and set up author visits for my comic books as well. I also started participating in school book fairs as well. I personally feel that Marvel and DC are not really trying that hard to get more younger readers.

JOESEPH
Your history getting to this point shows that you took risks and had setbacks, but you held true and it shows that it pays to do so.

Marvel, DC, Image, IDW, and others, as well as teachers, schools, parents, readers, and others who are interested in knowing more about what you are doing, how should someone get in touch with you?

RAY
They can email me at ray@raytoons.net or call/text me at (805) 590-7334. My mailing address is Raytoons Comics, 101 N Main Street #141, Templeton, California, 93465.

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INTRODUCTION In exercise, the squat and plank are useful due to how much of the body gets worked out doing them. In comics, you have a perfect marriage of words and art. And through comics, creators can take the lessons specific to comic creating to other forms of creation. 2D...